APA 7th Edition Referencing Guide

American Psychological Association (APA) Referencing Style is based on an author-date system with in-text referencing and a reference list.

Reference List

This guide explains how to create end-text references/ reference list in the APA 7th referencing style.

1. Book

Print Book (Authored book)

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.

Author=Surname, A= Initial of First Name, A= Initial of Middle Name

Calfee, R. C. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. American Psychological Association.


Ebook
eBook access from an academic research database
Note: Do not include a URL or database information for works from an academic research database

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book [edition]. Publisher. DOI

Williamson, G. R., Bellman, L., & Webster, J. (2012). Action research in nursing and healthcare. SAGE Publications Ltd. https://login.research4life.org/tacsgr1www_doi_org/10.4135/9781446289112


eBook access from a website

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work [edition]. Publisher. URL

Alfaro-LeFevre, R. (2014). Applying nursing process: The foundation for clinical reasoning (8th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://books.google.bt/books?id=dlqbmpuhPEcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=nursing&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjUhs-ipJjvAhXIdn0KHaqOD2cQ6AEwCHoECAgQAg#v=onepage&q=nursing&f=false


One to Twenty Authors
Include all authors in the reference list.

Twenty-one or More Authors
List the first 19 authors enter three full stops (ellipsis) then enter the last author.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., . . . Author, Z. Z. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


Edited Book with No Author

Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Sage Foundation.


Edited Book with an Author or Authors

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work. A. A. Author (Ed.) Publisher.

A= Initial of First Name, A= Initial of Middle Name, Author= Surname

Plath, S. (2000). The unabridged journals. K. V. Kukil (Ed.). Anchor.


Edition Other Than the First

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (5th ed.). Publisher. DOI or URL

Helfer, M. E., Keme, R. S., & Drugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of Chicago Press.


Unknown Author
If there is no author, use the organisation that published the book (if there is one). If there is no organisation, use the title of the book in the place of an author.

Example:
New concise world atlas. (2007). Oxford University Press.

A Translated Work

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (A. Translator, Trans.). Publisher. (Original work published Year). DOI or URL

Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). Dover. (Original work published 1814).


NB When you cite a republished work, like the one above in your text, it should appear with both dates.
Example: Laplace (1814/1951) says ...

Multi-volume Work

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work (Vols. x). Publisher. DOI or URL

Wiener, P. (Ed.). (1973). Dictionary of the history of ideas (Vols. 1-4). Scribner's.


Book Chapter

Chapter in an Edited Book

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher. DOI or URL

A= Initial of First Name, A= Initial of Middle Name, Editor= Surname

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). Springer.


Organization as Author

Organization Author. (Year of publication). Title of work. Publisher. DOI or URL


If the corporate author and publisher are the same, you may omit the publisher.

Ministry of Education. (2020). iSherig: Education ICT master plan . Kuensel.

Ministry of Health. (2019). Annual health bulletin.

2. References for Printed Journals, Newspapers and Magazines

Journal Article Paginated by Volume Number

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, pages. URL

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.


Journal Article Paginated by Issue Number

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages. URL

Scruton, R. (1996). The eclipse of listening. The New Criterion, 15(30), 5-13.


Article in a Newspaper/Magazine

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of article. Title of Newspaper/Magazine , pp. xx. URL


Unlike other source, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in the APA style. Single page takes p. (eg p. 2); multiple pages take pp. (eg pp. 2-6).

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today , pp. 1-2.


Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.


3. References for electronic Sources (e-journals, e-books, online newspaper)

Article from an Online Periodical with DOI Assigned

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number(issue number), pages. DOI

Karaca, T., & Aslan, S. (2018). Effect of ‘nursing terminologies and classifications’ course on nursing students’ perception of nursing diagnosis. Nurse Education Today, 67, 114-117. doi:10.1016/j.nedt.2018.05.011


Article from an Online Periodical with No DOI Assigned
Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page.

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume(issue), pages. URL

Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8(2), 23-30. http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html


Newspaper Article from webpage

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of news item. News Site. URL

Namgay, T. (2021, February 15). Changlimithang to have top-quality volleyball courts. Kuensel. https://kuenselonline.com/changlimithang-to-have-top-quality-volleyball-courts/


4. Website / webpage

Entire website
When citing an entire website, it is sufficient to cite the address in the text (in-text citation). No entry is needed in the end-text reference list.

In-text citation: Ministry of Health (http://health.gov.bt) is a website supporting . . .

Webpage on a website
Note: Only cite an item as a webpage when it does not fit into any other category e.g. journal, blog, conference proceedings.
  • If the author and webpage are the same, you may omit the site.
  • You may add a retrieved date if there is no creation date for the item.

  • Author, A. A. / Organization. (Year, Month Day of creation). Title of work. Name of Web site. URL

    World Health Organization. (2009). Health hygiene: Why, how & when?. Ministry of Health. http://www.moh.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/ftps/imnci/Hand_Hygiene%20Wash_Why_How_and_When.pdf


    Author, A. A. (n.d.). Title of work . Name of Web site. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Name of Web site. URL

    World Health Organization. (n.d.). Health hygiene: Why, how & when?. Retrieved March 15, 2021, from Ministry of Health. http://www.moh.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/ftps/imnci/Hand_Hygiene%20Wash_Why_How_and_When.pdf


    Government Documents/ Reports

    Author, A. A. / Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of report (Report number). Publisher. DOI or URL


    Author, A. A. / Corporate Author. (Year of publication). Title of report (Title of report series, Issue No.) Publisher. DOI or URL


    Note: If the corporate author and publisher are the same, you may omit the publisher.

    Ministry of Health. (2020). Annual health bulletin 2020. http://www.moh.gov.bt/wp-content/uploads/ict-files/2017/06/health-bulletin-Website_Final.pdf

    References

    American Psychological Association. (2021). APA style blog. https://apastyle.apa.org/blog


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